Real-time Electric field 


Transfer function model 

Climatological Model 

Data & processing 




The real-time model is not indented to wholly represent the Equatorial Ionospheric electric field. Here are some of the limitations of the model:

  • We do not consider the electric field effects from
    • Terrestrial weather
    • Disturbance dynamo effect
  • Transfer function assumes that the magnetosphere act as a linear, band-pass filter of the solar wind electric field. While this simple approximation accurately represent the prompt penetration effect for majority of the days, the model can significantly differ from the data during and immediately after a major geomagnetic storm.
  • The actual variations in the quiet day EEF variations can differ from the climatological model by up to 0.3 mV/m on any day.
  • The propagation delay estimate relies on only the solar wind velocity. It does not take into account either orientation of the IMF or the displacement of ACE satellite away from the  Sun- earth line.